Ingula Pumped Storage Scheme (South Africa)

Ingula Pumped Storage Scheme (South Africa)

Main Access Tunnel. Design Assistance, Monitoring during construction

Sa Matta subterranean (Italy)

Sa Matta subterranean (Italy)

Geological and Geomechanical Model for the design of the talc Sa Matta Open Pit Mine (Nu) Adits

Chennani-Nashri Road Tunnel (India)

Chennani-Nashri Road Tunnel (India)

Design and Assistance during Construction

Jinping - 305m Dam

Jinping - 305m Dam

305 m high Jinping arch dam - The highest dam in the world

CorredorBioceánico Aconcagua (Argentina-Chile)

CorredorBioceánico Aconcagua (Argentina-Chile)

Feasibility study and preliminary design

Sochi-Adler Krasnaya-Poliana (Russia)

Sochi-Adler Krasnaya-Poliana (Russia)

highway and railway tunnels

Perthus Tunnel (France-Spain)

Perthus Tunnel (France-Spain)

Tunnelling phase assistance

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Joomla : IAEG 2014 - IAEG XII


IAEG XII Congress - Torino, September 15-19, 2014
Keynote Speakers

Prof. Piero BoccardoProf. Piero Boccardo

Born in Torino, September, the 20th, 1964
From 2001, Associate Professor in the field of surveying and mapping at the Politecnico di Torino.
From 2006, Director of ITHACA (Information Tecnology for Humanitarian Assistance, Cooperation and Action), a joint project between Politecnico di Torino, SiTI and WFP (World Food Programme).
Degree at the Politecnico di Torino, Ph.D in "Geodetic and Topographic Sciences" at the Dipartimento Georisorse e Territorio of the Engineering Faculty of Politecnico di Torino.
Grant awarded by the Italian Research Council (C.N.R.) for a research activity at the Department of Geography and Antropology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, USA. Prize awarded by the Italian Research Council (C.N.R.) for the research activity carried on in USA.
He is President of the Remote Sensing Italian Association (AIT) from 2011; member of the ASITA Scientific and Steering Committees from 1997; chair of the Working Group 1 (Remote Sensing and Disasters) of Commission VIII (Remote Sensing Application) of ISPRS (International Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing) from 2008 to 2012, and Director and member of ITHACA (Information Technology for Humanitarian Assistance, Cooperation and Action) Board of Directors
He is in charge of Remote Sensing University courses at the Politecnico di Torino, and of the “Environmental applications of GNSS Technology” Master organized in the same university. He also participated as lecturer in different public and private training courses. He has been supervisor of more than 70 dissertation thesis both at university and Ph.D. Degree.
Author of more than 120 publications, edited at National and International level, he has been attended as speaker and chairman, more than 75 National and International scientific congresses.
Consultant for different private and public companies and organizations, he is now in charge for more than 10 contracts.

Keynote Lecture
Geomatics in Disaster Risk Management

In recent years, due to an increasing number of natural and manmade disasters, mainly related to climate change, a growing attention is paid to geomatics techniques when used for emergency management applications. This is essentially due to the large availability of different types of remotely acquired imageries and georeferenced data, allowing the extraction of relevant information, useful to approach, in an operational way, the different disaster cycle phase.

In this kind of application, different crucial issues should be taken into account:

• Timeliness of the service, in order to guarantee the fast provision of raw and thematic data (both raster and vector);
• The necessity to set up consolidated procedures allowing the delivery of consistent and generalized products;
• The overall request to produce certified data, quality checked and stating, in the meantime, geometric and thematic accuracies;
• The necessity to define precise data model and all the set of metadata describing the data itself;
• The obligation to deliver such data (raw and thematic) using an interoperable schema, allowing maps multiple usage and/or re-usage, and avoiding redundancy and effort duplication.

All these constraints will be taken into account to describe the current and most operational approach to emergencies, and in particular in the field of:

• Early warning systems;
• Early impact procedures;
• Post Disaster Need Assessment (PDNA)
• Lesson learned and capacity building.

At the same time, particular attention will be paid to new operational services (both in early warning and impact stages), new data acquisition systems (satellite and aerial sensors, UAV, Mobile Mapping Systems – MMS) and to the new perspective related to the massive usage of open source data, crowdsourcing/crowdmapping, voluntary crisis mappers and social networks approach.


Prof. Scott F. BurnsProf. Scott F. Burns

Scott is a Professor of Geology and Past-Chair of the Dept. of Geology at Portland State University where he just finished his 23rd year of teaching. He was also Associate Dean of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences at P.S.U. from 1997-1999. He has been teaching for 43 years, with past positions in Switzerland, New Zealand, Washington, Colorado and Louisiana. Scott specializes in environmental and engineering geology, geomorphology, soils, and Quaternary geology. In Oregon, he has projects involving landslides and land use, environmental cleanup of service stations, slope stability, earthquake hazard mapping, Missoula Floods, paleosols, loess soil stratigraphy, radon from soils, and the distribution of heavy metals and trace elements in soils. He has been active in mapping landslides in the Pacific Northwest since his return to Portland. Scott has won many awards for outstanding teaching with the most significant being the Faculty Senate Chair Award at Louisiana Tech University (1987), Distinguished Faculty Award from Portland State Alumni Association (2001), and George Hoffmann Award from PSU (2007). He has authored over 100 publications and has had over 25 research grants. He has written two books: Environmental, Groundwater and Engineering Geology: Applications from Oregon (1998). His second book, Cataclysms on the Columbia, the Great Missoula Floods (2009). Scott has been the president of the Faculty Senate at three different universities. He actively helps local TV and radio stations and newspapers bring important geological news to the public. For the past 40 years he has been studying terroir of wine: relationship between wine, soils, geology and climate.
He has BS and MS degrees from Stanford University in California, plus a Ph.D. in geology from the University of Colorado. He is has memberships in over 20 professional organizations and is most active in the AEG, IAEG, GSA, NAGT, and SSSA. He is past president of the Oregon Society of Soil Scientists and the Oregon Section of the Association of Engineering Geologists. He was national chair of the engineering geology division of the Geological Society of America in 1999-2000. He was national president of the Association of Engineering Geologists from 2002-2003. He was vice president for North America of the International Association of Engineering Geologists. He was chosen a fellow of the Geological Society of America in 2004. Scott was chosen a fellow with the ellogg National Fellowship Program from 1990 - 1993 based on his national leadership performance. He was president of the Downtown Rotary Club of Portland, Oregon’s oldest and largest Rotary club in 2009.
Scott enjoys all sports, especially basketball, skiing, hiking, tennis, and golf. He is married to Glenda (39 years), and they have three children: Lisa, Doug and Tracy.

Keynote Lecture
Urban Landslides in the Pacific Northwest

Each year landslides cause 25-50 deaths and on the average $3.5 billion in damage in the United States. Many of these landslides occur in urban settings. Figuring out what caused these landslides and also how to prevent them can be a challenge to geologists. The talk will focus on lessons learned from Pacific Northwest case histories in urban settings, focusing on homes hit by landslides, homes that moved down the slope on landslides, reactivation of ancient landslides, triggers such as precipitation and earthquakes, and vacant lots. Development of susceptibility maps, especially using LiDAR imagery, will be included. Different mitigation methods including different types of dewatering devices, walls, and freezing of the soil will be mentioned. The importance of lack of insurance for landslides on normal homeowner policies has great significance.


Prof. Giovanni Battista CrostaProf. Giovanni Battista Crosta

Giovanni B. Crosta, is professor of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology at the University of Milano Bicocca (Italy). His main research interests are in engineering geology, slope stability, rock and soil mechanics, hydrogeology. He contributed to the development of modeling tools and methods for the evaluation of landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk, and for the prediction of slope behavior from monitoring data. He has been Editor in Chief of the Engineering Geology journal (2005 – 2013) and Associate Editor of Italian Journal of Geosciences.


Keynote Lecture
Key issues in rock fall risk assessment

Rock falling is a widely diffused type of slope instability causing high risk in many natural and artificial conditions. During the year many different approaches have been proposed to assess rock fall susceptibility, hazard, triggering and propagation. Nevertheless, the more advanced models and statistical approaches still have to face a highly indeterminate process in which small changes in variables can cause notable changes in results and effects. This lecture, even if limited to the experience of the author and collaborators, discusses the main problems linked to the type of phenomenon, the modelling approaches, the common need for delineation of hazard and risk zones.


Prof. David CrudenProf. David Cruden

Dr. David Cruden, Emeritus Professor of Civil & Environmental Engineering and of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Alberta, Canada, is a recent Varnes medalist of the International Consortium on Landslides, a Legget medalist of the Canadian Geotechnical Society and a Julian Smith medalist of the Engineering Institute of Canada for his contributions to landslide studies. During the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (1990-2000), he led the collaboration of the International Geotechnical Societies that produced the Working Classification of Landslides for the International Union of Geological Sciences. He chaired IAEG’s Commission on Landslides from 1988 to 1995. He has published textbooks on engineering geology and terrain analysis along with three hundred technical papers. He was an Associate Editor of the Canadian Geotechnical Journal for 20 years & is presently an Advisor to the Editorial Board of “Landslides”. He continues to suggest extensions to the Working Classification of Landslides.

Keynote Lecture
Using the Working Classification of Landslides to assess the danger from a natural slope

An essential input to any calculation of the stability of a natural slope is a hypothesis about how the slope may move. No formal method for estimating likely kinematic modes of slopes exists unless the slope is currently moving or has moved in the past. A working hypothesis is that similar slopes in similar materials move in similar modes in response to similar causes.

During the IDNDR(1990-2000), the IAEG Commission on Landslides contributed to the Working Classification which records an international consensus on types of landslides. A landslide can be typed by a term describing the natural materials before they were displaced and a second term describing the movement. Materials are rock, debris or earth; earth may be sand, silt or clay. Movements may be falls, flows, slides, spreads or topples.

Water conditions in the displaced material may range from dry thru' moist and wet to very wet. In permafrost terrain, frozen and thawed displaced material may occur. Water conditions, material and mode of movement may govern the rate of movement of the displacing mass. It can range from extremely slow to the extremely rapid movements which may have catastrophic impacts.

Activity, its distribution and style may affect anticipated modes of movement in assessed slopes. Slopes may be active suspended, reactivated, dormant, abandoned, stabilized, repaired, or relict. Styles of movement may be complex, composite, successive and multiple. Compilations of the historic activity of similar slopes as landslide inventories suggest hazard scenarios which can form plausible initial hypotheses for risk assessments.


Dr. Eduardo F.J. de MulderDr. Eduardo F.J. de Mulder

Eduardo de Mulder is a geoscientist and dedicated most of his career to the Geological Survey of the Netherlands (now TNO) where he actively promoted the application of geosciences for society through a variety of major projects. In 1998 he was appointed Professor with a Chair on Subsurface Management at Delft University. His international career began in 1987. He held the position of Treasurer of INQUA for eight years, Board member of the IAEG, Secretary-General and later Chairman of the IUGS Commission on Environmental Planning (COGEOENVIRONMENT), President of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), from 2000-2004, Executive Director of the UN proclaimed International Year of Planet Earth (2007-2010). In 2011, Eduardo de Mulder initiated the Earth Science Matters Foundation dedicated to geoscience outreach. Currently he is the Director of this Foundation and a member of the Steering Committee of the International Year of Global Understanding. He is the author and co-author of more than 130 scientific articles and books. Eduardo de Mulder is an Honorary Fellow of the Geological Society of London and bestowed with a wide variety of international prices and acknowledgements.

Keynote Lecture
Underground Urban Development, an overview.

Use of underground space in cities has a long history and may span significant areas. Today, it contributes to finding solutions for sustainable urban development, in particular in regions with harsh climatic conditions. Underground urban development is mainly determined by economic, environmental, geo-technical and legislative factors. These factors are briefly addressed in this paper. In addition, underground urban development requires vision and leadership from (local) politicians. Special attention is given to China, where significant underground urban development is undertaken today. Finally, this paper discusses perspectives and challenges related to underground urban development with special emphasis upon the role of engineering geologists.


Prof. Carlos DelgadoProf. Carlos Delgado

He initially combined his professional activity with teaching as a part-time Lecturer and has collaborated with the specialised firms: Swissboring (Switzerland) and Rodio (Spain) in a large number of studies and projects in Spain, Switzerland, France, Italy, Holland, Middle East, Africa, Central and South America chiefly in the geotechnics field. Amongst these are:
Astronomy Observatory in La Palma; Bridge over the Nile in Khartoum (Sudan); Hydroelectric projects in Aguacapa and Chixoy (Guatemala), El Cajon (Honduras), Tipitapa (Nicaragua), Guabio (Colombia), King Talal Dam (Jordan), Sefi Rud (Iran), Mosul Dam (Irak), Senzier Dam (Switzerland), Pena Angulo Tunnel (Burgos, Spain), El Goloso Tunnel (Madrid), Extension of Line V Madrid Metro, Zumikon Station (Zurich), Corrective measures Avenida Ilustración (Madrid), Olympic Port (Barcelona), new extensions of the Prado Museum (Madrid), correction of landfill stability in Portman (Cartagena), Dock in Seville river port, foundations of towers for electricity connection over the Amazon river, foundation of Khulna power plant in Bangladesh, etc. He has directed many in-the-field research studies of grouting mixes and procedures for the treatment of rock, soils, and hydraulic fracturing grouting in dams and other structures. Later he returned to full-time teaching at the University, and became Full Professor in the Applied Geology and Geotechnics Department at the Polytechnic University of Madrid. He has also directed over 80 Academic Final Year Students Projects and Doctoral Theses and has given Master courses on Geotechnic Control of works and Tunnelling. He has published many papers at Congresses and in Magazines specialising in geotechnic subjects. From 1985 until 1995 he was the Spanish representative and deputy President of the European Foundation Association. At present he is the President of AEGAIN (The Spanish Association of Geology applied to Engineering) and President of IAEG and he is a member of the Jury for Doctorate Theses of ANCI, board member of the Spanish Association of Roads and he is also a member of the Board of Directors of the Madrid Polytechnic University, and Dean of the Civil Engineering School.

Keynote Lecture
Problems in buildings and public Works derived from soils with metastable structure and soils with large volume instability

Collapsible and swelling soils are responsible for producing large foundation movements, even in the absence of load changes. Their structure, degree of saturation, and loading history make them prone to important changes in void ratio as a result of changes in water content under constant construction loads. The resulting differential movement may cause severe damages to structures, especially when affecting to old constructions, some of them of high historical or architectural value.
Among different techniques that have been used to face those problems, the soil improvement and bolting, by means of systematic fracture grouting through steel sleeve-pipes, allows to stabilize the ground, even affected by superimposed problems of slope instability and karstic phenomena of high rate development (like in gypsiferous or other even more soluble soils) without any need of mechanical connection with the foundation structures themselves. The communication will mention a number of collapsible and swelling materials, identified in different countries all over the world, as well as some stabilizations, by means of fracture grouting, involving important problems of engineering geology, and high value historical and architectural sites, like the Alhambra and Generalife Monument, in Granada.


Prof. Gordon E. Grant

Gordon Grant is a Research Hydrologist with the USDA Forest Service at the Pacific Northwest Research Station in Corvallis, Oregon, USA, and also Courtesy Professor in the College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University. Following a decade-long career as a whitewater river guide on western US rivers, he received his Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins University in 1986 under the tutelage of Professor M. Gordon Wolman. His research has focused on the geomorphic response of rivers to changes in stream flow and sediment transport due to land use, dams and dam removal, volcanic eruptions, and climate change. This work has included extended collaborations with research groups in Japan, China, and Italy. He is a former Deputy and Associate Editor for the journal Water Resources Research, and a Fellow of the Geological Society of America. He also chairs the National Steering Committee for the US National Science Foundation-sponsored Critical Zone Observatory Program.

Keynote Lecture
Emerging global issues in river basin management: a geomorphic perspective 

For as long as people have been living next to and with rivers the fundamental challenges of managing rivers and river basins have remained approximately the same. These include providing human populations with clean, potable water and hydraulic energy, safely removing municipal, agricultural and industrial wastes, and protecting people and infrastructure from climatic and hydrologic extremes of flood and drought. But burgeoning populations, loss of critical ecosystems and biodiversity, dramatic shifts in land use and technologies, and the potential for rapidly accelerating climate change in the near future have recast these old problems in a new light, and new issues and questions are emerging that are pushing the limits of our technical understanding. For example, can dams and reservoirs be managed to mitigate the effects of changing climate on streamflow and sediment transport regimes? Can dense human populations co-exist in the same river basins with threatened and endangered aquatic species? Can river floodways be managed to reduce the risk of natural hazards while retaining river function? Can fluvial and ecological functions be restored or re-introduced into severely degraded river systems?
Drawing from these and other examples, I will argue that addressing these questions requires broadened interdisciplinary perspectives that integrate geomorphic and ecological principles into engineering designs.


Prof. Fausto GuzzettiDr. Fausto Guzzetti

Fausto Guzzetti graduated in Geology from the University of Perugia, Italy, in 1983 with a thesis on the structural geology of the Central Apennines, Italy. In 2006, he obtained a PhD in Geography from the University of Bonn, Germany, with a dissertation on landslide hazards and risk assessment. In 1985-1986 he was a visiting scientist at the U.S. Geological Survey, working on small-scale landslide inventory maps. Since his return to Perugia in 1987, he has worked on a number of research items, including: landslide mapping and landslide cartography in different morphological and climatic environments, analysis of landslide types and patterns in relation to different geological settings, methods for landslide susceptibility, hazard, vulnerability, and risk assessment and mapping, comparison and evaluation of landslide maps and forecasting models, acquisition and use of historical information on landslides and floods for hazard and risk assessment, identification of rainfall and hydrological thresholds for the initiation of landslides and their application in landslide warning systems, spatially distributed rock fall modelling for hazard and risk assessment, frequency-magnitude statistics of landslides and their sizes, and dissemination of information on natural hazards and risk. A senior research scientist with the Italian Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Guzzetti leads the CNR Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection (IRPI). He was president of the Natural Hazards Division of the European Geosciences Union, and has lead European and national projects, including the ASI MORFEO, and the FP7 DORIS and FP7 LAMPRE projects for the exploitation of remote sensing technologies for landslide detection, mapping, monitoring and forecasting, and the CNR-GNDCI AVI project for the collection and exploitation of historical information on damaging landslide and flood events in Italy. A founding member of the European Geosciences Union (EGU), Guzzetti was president of the Natural Hazards Division of EGU between 2002 and 2007, and he is an executive editor for the EGU journal Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences. In 2008 he received the EGU Union Service Award. Guzzetti is the author or co-author of more than 75 papers in international journals, 10 book chapters, nine landslide maps, and several communications to national and international conferences.

Keynote Lecture
Towards improved landslide mapping and forecasting

Landslides are present in all continents, and play an important role in the evolution of landscapes. Despite the fact that slope failures are ubiquitous, we estimate that landslide maps cover less than 1% of the slopes in the landmasses, and systematic information on the type, abundance, and distribution of landslides is lacking. Preparing landslide maps is important to document the extent of landslide phenomena in a region, to investigate the distribution, types, pattern, recurrence, and statistics of slope failures, to determine landslide susceptibility, hazard, vulnerability and risk, and to study the evolution of landscapes dominated by mass-wasting processes. In many areas, landslides are a serious hazard. In Italy, a country for which detailed information exists, landslides have caused more than 5,000 fatalities between 1950 and 2013, and represent a leading cause of death due to natural hazards. In this country, and in many other areas, rainfall-induced landslides cause most of the landslide fatalities. For this reason, determining the amount of rainfall needed to trigger slope failures is a problem of both scientific and societal interest.
Modern techniques for the detection and mapping of event (e.g., fresh) landslides are presented. The focus is on techniques that exploit HR and VHR satellite images, including multiple-change-detection (MCD), Bayesian, and combined techniques. This is followed by a presentation of the results obtained on the definition of objective empirical rainfall thresholds for the possible occurrence of rainfall induced landslides, and on the evaluation of the uncertainty associated to the empirical thresholds. Lastly, the integration of the empirical thresholds in a prototype national-scale landslide warning system is illustrated. We designed and we operate the system for the Italian National Department for Civil Protection.


Prof. Runqiu Huang

Runqiu Huang received the Ph.D. degree in Engineering Geology from Chengdu University of Technology in 1988, China. Then he joined the engineering geology group in the university and was engaged in high rock slope stability and landslides researches for almost thirty years. His most research concerns in recent ten years focus on the high rock slope dynamic evolution, stability analysis and the mechanism of large-scale catastrophic landslides. He is currently director of the State Key Laboratory of Geohazard Prevention and Geoenvironment Protection, the Vice President of International Association for Engineering Geology and the Environment (IAEG), the President of Chinese Engineering Geology Society and the Vice President of Chengdu University of Technology.
Prof. Huang has authored/co-authored more than 200 research articles in referenced journals and international conference proceedings, book chapters and the textbooks. He gives about 250 lectures and presentations in international and domestic conferences、symposiums、seminars and workshops. He received a lot of important academic awards from governments and organizations in his academic career, e.g. the Fork Yin-Tong Award in 1998, the Outstanding Chinese Youth Research Funds Award in 1995, China Distinguished Experts Award in 2002, the First Class Award of National Science and Technology Achievements in 2005, Li Si-guang Geological Scientific Award and He-Liang-He-Li Science and Technology Progress Award in 2007.

Keynote Lecture
Understanding the mechanism of large-scale landslides triggered by strong earthquakes in China

China is a country with complex tectonic background, especially in the southwest, where the collision between Indian and Europe-Asian plates caused the intensive uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, producing many active faults and high seismic activity. Due to high and sharply changing altitude, steep and rugged terrain, deeply incised valleys and fragile geoenvironment, strong earthquakes often triggered giant or large-scale landslides in the east margin of Tibet Plateau and the famous North-south tectonic belts. About ten landslides concentrated in different fault zones, such as the Haiyuan, Dadu and Wenchuan regions, were investigated in detail. In order to understand their failure mechanism, the in-situ seismography monitoring, shaking table tests and numerical simulation have been carried out. This keynote summarizes the main knowledge we gained from these case studies.
For rockslides, we found that the combination of strong and long-lasting ground shaking, steep, rugged topography and a fragile and densely jointed lithology probably controlled the occurrence of landslides during the earthquake, but other factors may have also played a role. The in-situ monitoring result reveals the slope response to seismic waves, showing that the sudden change of slope angle, narrow/thin mountain ridges and isolated hills etc. may play more crucial roles in the amplification of peak ground acceleration (PGA) than elevation. Generally, the amplification factor at high and sharply changing parts of mountains can be reached to 1.6-3.0. That means under strong earthquake, vertical and deep tension cracks would be favorably developed in the rear part of a slope and form a very steep back scarp. Further investigation helps us to set up a very typical conceptual model for SETL, which can be described as vertical tension cracking at the rear part of a slope and low angle shearing failure on the front part. That is the “L” –shaped slip surface to be quite different from general landslides under gravity force.
Different from rockslides in the Dadu and Wenchuan regions, landslides in Haiyuan region are developed in gentle loess slopes. These landslides are characterized by large volume, high speed and long runout. They also have rather low reach angle, only 5-10o, also called “apparent friction angle” (defined as the ratio between the vertical drop and the horizontal travel distance of a landslide). Our investigation of the loess landslides indicates that their failure is controlled by the intrinsic micro-structure of loess, including the high porosity and weak point-contact/bonding between particles. It is found that the earthquake vibration promotes the occurrence of loess landslides by means of 1) liquefying the saturated loess (normally silt-sized) so that the shear resistance gets largely reduced; and 2) breaking the bonding between particles, making a flow-like dispersed soil mass. Both favor a sudden failure of loess landslide with long runout.


Dr. Jeffrey R. Keaton 

Jeffrey R. Keaton has degrees in Geological Engineering, Geotechnical Engineering, and Geology. He has been employed by consulting firms for over 40 years and has been a Principal in AMEC’s Los Angeles office of since 2001. He holds the Envision™ Sustainability Professional Credential and is licensed as a professional engineer and a professional geologist in several states. Jeff is a “joiner” and has held leadership positions with a number of organizations, such as:

- member of the Steering Committee of Geotechnical Extreme Event Reconnaissance (GEER) Association.
- member of the ASCE Committee on Sustainability and chair of its Strategic Communications Subcommittee
- chair of the ASCE Geo-Institute’s Committee on Sustainability in Geotechnical Engineering, and past chair of the Geo-Institute’s Technical Coordination Council
- chair of the IAEG Commission No. 1 (Engineering Geological Characterization and Visualization) and representative for the US National Group of IAEG
- past president of the Association of Environmental & Engineering Geologists
- past chair of the Environmental & Engineering Geology Division of the Geological Society of America
- past chair of the Transportation Research Board Exploration and Classification of Earth Materials Committee, Engineering Geology Committee, and Geology and Properties of Earth Materials Section
- member of the Executive Committee of the Engineering Accreditation Commission of ABET

Keynote Lecture
Title: Extreme Events and Engineering Geology: Processes, Effects, and Contributions for Resilient Communities

Abstract: Engineering geologists are familiar with a variety of extreme events, ranging from those that are dramatic (great earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and catastrophic landslides) to those that may be subtle (aquifer depletion or contamination, enhanced susceptibility to erosion resulting from drought or wildfire, coastal subsidence, and sea level rise). This workshop will provide a forum for engineering geologists to discuss experiences with some case histories of extreme events and the role of engineering geologists in characterizing a)the loads and forces that might be needed for improved design, b) opportunities for mitigating the effects on infrastructure, and c) the frequency and magnitude of the processes and the extent of damaging effects.

Prof. Claudio MargottiniDr. Claudio Margottini

Claudio Margottini is a senior scientist at Geological Survey of Italy (ISPRA), Vice President of the International Consortium on Landslides at the University of Kyoto (Japan) and acting professor at the Huangzou University (Wuhan , China). His major field of expertise embrace the development of engineering geological techniques for the conservation and protection of Cultural and Natural Heritages. Most relevant projects include the sites of Machu Picchu (Peru), Buddhas statues of Bamiyan (Afghanistan), Lalibela Churches (Ethiopia), Koguryo tombs (North Korea), Vardzia caves (Georgia), minaret of Jam (Afghanistan), stelae park in Aksum (Ethiopia), Moai statues (Easter Island, Chile), Tiwanaku pyramid (Bolivia), Petra (Jordan), Katski column (Georgia), Herat minaret (Afghanistan), Bayannuur tomb (Mongolia), Orongo cliff and village (Easter Island, Chile), Maaloula cliff and village (Syria), Zohak archaeological fortress (Afghanistan) as well as many Italian sites of high cultural value. He is author of about 280 publications and books.

Keynote Lecture
Engineering geology for cultural heritage conservation: the "size" of the problem and some achievements in UNESCO World Heritage Sites

Cultural heritage represents the legacy of the human kind on the planet earth. It is evidence of millennia of adaptation of humans to the environment. Cultural heritage can be intangible (e.g. traditional knowledge, customs, ritual practices or beliefs) and tangible, the latter including various categories of places, from cultural landscapes and sacred sites to archaeological complexes, individual architectural or artistic monuments and historic urban centres.
The above sites and remains are not always in equilibrium with the environment. They are continuously impacted and weathered by several internal and external factors, both natural and human-induced, with rapid and/or slow onset. These include major sudden natural hazards, such as earthquakes or extreme meteorological events, but also slow, cumulative processes such the erosion of rocks, compounded by the effect of climate change, without disregarding the role of humans, especially in conflict situations.
Against this background, engineering geology and earth science in general may play an essential role in the conservation and management of cultural properties. The relevance and potential of these areas of study was not fully appreciated in the past. At present, however, their contribution is increasingly acknowledged as the need for an inter-disciplinary approach, which would bring together art history, science, management and socio-economic concerns, has become more and more apparent.
In recent decades, many sites of significant cultural heritage value have suffered damage, occasionally irreversible, from natural and human-induced processes. This paper is presenting some case studies, in which the author has been directly involved, where engineering geology and earth science were applied in the context of programmes implemented by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to protect and maintain important cultural heritage sites. The selected sites concentrate mainly in regions of the world recently involved in conflicts or requiring international assistance and cooperation due to the dimension of the disaster and the lack of local capacity.


Prof. Paul G. MarinosProf. Paul G. Marinos

Dr Paul Marinos, is Emeritus Professor of Engineering Geology at the National Technical University of Athens. He is a past President of the International Association of Engineering Geology and the Environment (IAEG), and past president of the Geological Society of Greece.
Dr Paul Marinos has received several awards, including the Hans Cloos medal of IAEG. He was selected for the presentation of named lectures, including the 6th Glossop Lecture in London (2002), the 19th Rocha Lecture in Lisbon (2002), the 33rd Cross Canada Lectures Tour (2005) and as the 2010 Jahns distinguished Lecturer of the Geological Society of America and the Association of Engineering Geologists. In 2013 he was awarded by the French Republic as “Chevalier de l’Ordre des Palmes Académiques”. Dr Marinos and his team conduct research on a variety of applications of geology to engineering, mainly rock mass characterization, weak rock properties and behavior, with special emphasis to engineering design and construction of tunnels and dams He has authored over 300 papers and was a key lecturer in more than 50 conferences. He is editor in chief of the journal “Geotechnical and Geological Engineering” and also a member of the Editorial Board of a number of prominent journals. Dr Paul Marinos has extensive industrial experience having served as consultant, independent reviewer and member of consulting boards or panel of experts on major civil engineering projects in more than 20 countries around the world.

Keynote Lecture
Engineering Geology for tunneling in difficult ground

The growth of infrastructure needs has increased the demands for the excavation of tunnels in poor ground or varying geological conditions. The assessment of ground for design has to be based on a sound understanding of the regional geological rules and on the establishment of a geological model where data and conditions are translated into an engineering geology description. Examples of geological models and cases from both mountain and urban tunnels under complex or difficult geological conditions are presented.
Tunnel design requires knowledge on the quality of the material in which the tunnel will be constructed. Engineering design requires numbers and the lecture explores and discusses methods that can be used by engineering geologists to assess the geological factors that have an impact on the design. Since the attempt of Terzaghi, in 1946, to describe the characteristics of rock masses, a number of rock mass classifications have been developed and play an important role in tunnel design and in providing input data on strength and deformation properties of the ground for numerical models. A discussion on this issue is presented. Together with the rock mass properties, the in situ stresses field has to be estimated or measured and this is one of the most difficult tasks.
Although the role of engineering geology has been extended into the area of defining the design parameters, the idealization process, in the form of numerical analysis, should be driven by sound geologic reasoning together with the engineering logic.
The understanding of real behaviour is indeed absolutely necessary before any calculation is attempted. Thus, the engineering geological “I.D” of the geomaterial and the stress environment define this ground behaviour such us:
• Brittle failure of strong massive rock under high stress level.
• Gravitational falling or sliding of blocks or wedges defined by intersecting structural features or “chimney” type failure, or ravelling in disintegrated and heavily broken and loose masses.
• Formation of a “plastic” zone by shear failure under high stress relative to the strength of the rock mass with deformation problems or even squeezing.
• Swelling, in case of appropriate mineralogical constitution.
The lecture discusses also cases as slope tunnels, interaction in twin tunnels, and tunneling in rock masses with expressed anisotropy, while examples from a number of tunnels from around the world illustrate the design and construction procedures is presented.


Prof. Ricardo OliveiraProf. Ricardo Oliveira

Chairman of COBA Group, Engineering and Environmental Consultants, leading company working in more than 35 countries all over the world
Specialist Degree (PhD level) in Engineering Geology (1965), LNEC, Portugal
Post Doctoral Research at the University of Illinois (USA), 1967/68
Senior Research Degree (Full Professor level) in Geotechnique (1983), LNEC, Portugal
Doctor Honoris Causa (Geological Engineering), Complutense University of Madrid, Spain. 1998
Professor of Engineering Geology and of Rock Mechanics, New University of Lisbon where established a Geotechnical Department (1975) and organized the first MSc Courses in Soil Mechanics and in Engineering Geology. From 2002 to 2008, Coordinator of the MSc Course in Geotecnics for Civil Engineering. Emeritus since 2008
Visiting Professor at several Universities, namely in Brazil; Canada,China Spain, and Switzerland.
Adviser and Examiner of many Portuguese and foreign engineers and geologists regarding MSc and PhD thesis, in Engineering Geology, Rock Mechanics and Soil Mechanics at LNEC and Portuguese and foreign Universities
Member and Chairman of Organizing and Scientific Committees of national and international Conferences in Portugal and foreign countries
International Consultant for Dams and Underground Works in projects all over the world.
Author of over 150 scientific papers, general and panel reports and chapters of national and international books.
Member of scientific and professional associations, namely IAEG,ISRM,ISSMGE,ITA, Portuguese Association of Engineers, Portuguese Association of Geologists and Portuguese Geotechnical Society
Member of the Portuguese Academy of Engineering
Received several distinctions and honourable mentions from national and international scientific bodies namely the Hans Cloos Medal (IAEG, 1996), Manuel Rocha Research Prize (LNEC, 2002) and André Dumont Medal (Belgian Group of IAEG, 1993)
Was awarded the Insignia “Grande Oficial da Ordem de Mérito” by the President of the Republic of Portugal (2006)
Deputy Director of LNEC (1983/1991)
Secretary General ISRM (1968/1974)
Vice-President IAEG (1986/1990)
President IAEG (1990/1994)

Keynote Lecture
Optimization of Large Civil Engineering Projects from the Environmental point of view

Without exception, the construction and operation of civil engineering projects have resultant environmental impacts.
However, in most cases the projects are essential to the economic and social development of the regions where they are located and for some, their sole purpose is to protect people and goods from natural hazards such as floods and landslides.
In general, the media and environmentalists tend to enhance the negative impacts of the projects and very seldom make reference to their positive impacts.
In this context, the need for high quality studies and designs is assuming increasing relevance for engineering projects, to ensure solutions with the least negative impacts are selected and subsequently constructed and operated by suitably qualified staff.
The role of geotechnics in the optimization of civil engineering projects is therefore as important as is the efficient and early intervention of specialists, and their decisions, on the technical, economic, social, environmental and operational aspects of the works.
To illustrate that it is often possible to optimize projects from an environmental point of view, several examples are presented in relation to construction materials, hydraulic developments, linear works (roads, railways, airways, and waterways), underground works, maritime works, bridges and viaducts, and natural and excavation slopes. In each case, emphasis is placed on the environmental concerns that require optimization of the design in order to minimise the negative impacts without diminishing the economic and social benefits of the works.


Prof. Victor I. OsipovProf. Victor I. Osipov

Dr. Prof. Victor Ivanovich OSIPOV is the full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, director of the Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience RAS, Dr. Sci. (Geol.-Min.). He is a leading Russian scientist in environmental geoscience, engineering geology, soil and rock engineering, and geodynamics. V.I. Osipov has contributed to the world science with the considerable achievements in soil and rock engineering, the prediction, study of mechanisms and regularities of the development of geological hazards, natural risks assessment theory, and minimization of natural disasters consequences. Prof. Osipov is the chairman of the Russian national group IAEG, the head of the Scientific Council at the Russian Academy of Sciences on the problems of environmental geoscience, engineering geology, and hydrogeology; the member of the Russian National Committee of Geologists, editor-in-chief of the Russian academic periodical journal "Environmental Geoscience" ("Geoekologiya”). V.I. Osipov is the author of more than 500 scientific publications (including 12 monographs and 20 patents of inventions), awardee of the State Prize of the USSR (1988); laureate of the Moscow Major Prize in environment protection (2002), winner of the National Ecological Prize (2004); laureate of the Russia State medal of the first degree “For great services to the Motherland” (2008), and the State Award of the Russian Government (2008). He is the laureate of the IAEG Hans Cloos medal (2012).

Keynote Lecture
Large-Scale Thematic Geological Mapping of Megacities (by the example of Moscow)

An ambitious research project was implemented at the Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience of the Russian Academy of Sciences in collaboration with the Moscow Geological and Geodetic Trust during 2008-2009 according to the decision of the Moscow Government. The project implied the compilation of 12 thematic geological large-scale maps for the Moscow territory to a scale 1 : 10 000. This work was based on the digital processing of more than 85 000 boreholes drilled in the city in different years, among which 13000 deep boreholes penetrated in the Carboniferous deposits. This is a pioneer work in Russia, because apart from the digitizing and analysis of a great volume of drilling data, it implied theoretical and methodical studies based on modern geoinformational techniques. The resultant combined map of engineering geological zoning was based on the integration of data on the structural-geodynamic, geomorphological and geological structure, hydrogeological conditions, distribution of natural hazards and geological processes and phenomena. The map proceeds from the principle of consistent typological division of the territory into four taxonomic levels, using the index method naming of taxa of different rank. The performed complex analysis of engineering geological conditions permitted us to distinguish three degrees of complexity for construction, which should be taken into account at the early stages of designing subsurface and surface urban engineering structures


Dr. Alessandro Palmieri

Alessandro Palmieri has 39 years of experience worldwide in water infrastructure planning and development, dams and hydropower projects in particular. He is internationally recognized as an authority on water resources infrastructure. Included in the list of the 60 most influential people ever in the dams and hydropower industry (October 2009). Awarded ICOLD’s honorary membership in recognition of services provided to the international dam society (May 2010). Awarded the India Power Award (November 2010) as one of the three top international actors in the hydropower business in the year.
He has been the Lead Dam Specialist in the World Bank from 1997 to 2013, with overall responsibility on technical aspects of the Institution’s portfolio of dams, including over 130 projects, with direct engagement in 86 water infrastructure operations. Before joining the Bank Mr Palmieri worked in the private sector for 22 years. During his career, he has been involved in the full development cycle of dams and hydro plants in 54 countries, in every continent (see annex A).
Professional Experience
From August 2013 Water Infrastructure Adviser
Salini- Impregilo International Contractor Group
Chairperson, ICOLD Committee on “Multipurpose Water Storage” (2013-2015).
1997 to 2013 World Bank, Washington D.C.
World Bank experience included a significant role in the preparation, appraisal and/or supervision of water infrastructure and natural hazard management projects. Operations included some 37 new dams and over 20,000MW new hydros; rehabilitation and safety assessment of over 100 existing dams and hydros; six natural hazard management operations, including Lake Sarez Risk Mitigation Project dealing with the highest natural dam in the world (600m high Usoy Dam, Eastern Pamir Range, Tajikistan). Institutional components of projects covered training, regulatory frameworks, and policy dialogue.
Technical quality assurance, design review, implementation supervision, panel of experts orchestration were the main tasks at project level; the full range of tasks included also environmental and social, fiduciary, and legal aspects of development lending. Training and skill enhancement programs for World Bank staff and Clients formed large part of the work program.
1995-1996 Hydea S.r.L. Consulting, Italy
1975-1995 Studio Pietrangeli S.r.L., Italy
Knowledge Management
Author/ Co-author of 3 Books, 6 Monographs, 12 Journal Articles
Session chair, keynote speaker, panel member in over 40 International Congresses/ Conferences

Keynote Lecture
Translating Geotechnical Risk in Financial Terms

Practitioners know that geotechnical uncertainty never ends until a tunnel is completed. In some cases, uncertainty extends into operation. The present note summarizes relevant project financing elements such as viability, risk allocation, and bankability. Main financial instruments for different project structures are outlined, highlighting their likely ranges of application. Two key instruments for managing project risks, the Geotechnical Baseline Report, and the Project Risk Register, are presented and their joint use illustrated. The importance of carrying over uncertainty along the entire project cycle (planning, construction, and operation) is elaborated by using a concept borrowed from the hydropower sector.


Prof. Luciano Picarelli

Luciano Picarelli is Professor of Soil Mechanics at the Department of Civil Engineering, Design, Building and Environment (DICDEA) of the Seconda Università di Napoli.
He is also:
- Chairman of the Joint Technical Committee (JTC1) on Natural Slopes and Landslides established by the FEdIGS (Federation of the International Geo-Engineering Societies, the ISSMGE, the ISRM and the IAEG);
- member of the Commissione Nazionale Grandi Rischi (National Commission for Forecasting and Predicting Great Risks), for the section “meteo and hydrogeologic risks”;
- Associate Editor of the journal Landslides;
- Member of the Editorial Committee of the journal Rivista Italiana di Geotecnica.

In the past Luciano Picarelli has been:
- Chairman of the Board of the professors in Civil Engineering and in Environmental Engineering, Seconda Università di Napoli;
- Director of the Research Centre in Environmental Engineering (C.I.R.I.AM.), Seconda Università di Napoli;
- coordinator of a consortium (PIC) of european universities within the Erasmus project;
- member of the Board of the National Geotechnical Society;
- member of the scientific committee of the Competence Centre Analysis and Monitoring of Environmental Risks, AMRA.

Luciano Picarelli has been coordinator or national and international research projects, author of more than 200 papers and books, he has delivered lectures and courses in Italy and outside. In 2008 he delivered the annual “Arrigo Croce” Conference in Rome. He has been reporter in many international conferences and meetings and editor of the proceedings of international conferences.
Luciano Picarelli has been advisor for public research organizations and consulting for public and private companies mainly in the domain of landslides and landslide risk mitigation.

Keynote Lecture
Continuous observation, modelling and model checking: setting adequate models to tackle natural risks (is there a better way to fully exploit the expertise of geologists and engineers at the same time?)

Recent times have shown a continuous increase of the risk due to both natural and anthropogenic hazards. This is mostly a consequence of the increase in exposure due to the growth of the population and of the land use, especially in developing countries. In the most advanced countries the exposure to risks is less acceptable because of the higher culture and sensibility of people which are more and more security-conscious and demand for more protection. The situation is then highly charged and urge the development of effective criteria for risk mitigation. This requires a clear knowledge of the phenomena in hand.
The paper reports the present knowledge on the characteristics of flow-like landslides, the most destructive events induced by slope failure, with special reference to those that involve saturated silty and clayey soils. Mostly based on Italian experience, it describes the recent growth of the knowledge thanks to the close relationship that researchers have capable to establish between experience and theory. While experience provides data and observations, theory elaborates and explains experimental data within a conceptual frame. This approach can be continued still more: in fact, the integration between further experiments and the use of advanced modelling can contribute in the development of new and even more effective theoretical tools. This can be more easily and effectively obtained through the work carried out by people having a different background, as geologists and engineers, who can deeply integrate their own experience and knowledge.


Dr. Antonello Provenzale

Research Director at the Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, CNR, Turin.
Research interests: Climate dynamics; climate change impact on ecosystems, natural hazards and the hydrologic cycle; climate-biosphere interaction.
Awards and invitations:
- Golden Badge Award of the European Geophysical Society (EGS) in 1997.
- Dozor Fellowship of the Ben Gurion University in Beer Sheva (Israel) in 1996.
- JILA Visiting Fellowship of the University of Colorado, Boulder (USA) in 1997.
- Member of the Summer Program on Geophysical Fluid Dynamics at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA, USA, from 2005.
- Invited professor at the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris in 2005, at the Universitè Pierre et Marie Curie in Paris in 2008 and 2009.
- Coordinator of the MIUR national Project of Interest "NextData"
- Coordinator of the GEO "Ecosystems" Societal Benefit Action
Author of more than 120 papers in the international scientific literature. Editor of four volumes and of two journal special issues.

Keynote Lecture
Assessing climate change risks under uncertain conditions

Climate and environmental change is expected to potentially affect hydrometeorological hazard and ecosystem functioning, with possible threats to human societies due to an increased probability of extreme events and a loss of ecosystem services. In mountain regions, the environmental response could be even larger. For this reason, it is essential to obtain estimates of the expected modifications in natural hazards associated with climate and environmental change, to develop appropriate adaptation and risk mitigation strategies. This goal, however, is made difficult by the scale mismatch between climate model projections and land surface response, which requires the use of appropriate climate downscaling procedures. To complicate the picture, one should also cope with the chain of uncertainties which affect climate and risk projections, from the wide range of global climate model estimates for the water cycle variables, to the uncertainties in regional climate response, to the uncertainties in the hydrological and/or ecosystem models themselves. Precipitation data used to validate the models, on the other hand, are also affected by severe uncertainties, especially in mountain regions. In this talk, I shall address some of these issues and discuss the problem of assessing natural hazards for the different climate and environmental change scenarios under uncertain conditions.


Dr. Helen ReevesDr. Helen Reeves

Dr Helen Reeves is an engineering geologist with 16 years post graduate experience in engineering geological mapping, rock mass characterisation and geomechanics. She gained her undergraduate Geological Sciences degree from the University of Leeds and an MSc in Engineering Geology and a PhD from the University of Durham. Before Helen joined BGS she worked for a number of UK based ground investigation companies (Ian Farmer Associates & Dunelm Geotechnical & Environmental).
Currently, Helen is the Director of Science for Engineering Geology at the British Geological Survey (BGS). She has overall responsibility for the success, scientific development and coordination of the scientific research in this science theme within BGS. The key scientific areas of research in this science theme involve: investigating the processes and the spatial distribution of shallow geohazards in the UK (particularly landslides and subsidence); investigating the physical properties (e.g. engineering geological, geotechnical & geophysical properties) in the UK land mass and applying the knowledge and information from these investigations to develop novel techniques and methodologies to monitor and model these processes and properties within the urban environment to aid urban planning and sustainable development.
Previously in BGS, Helen was the: Team leader for the Geo-Engineering Properties & Processes research in the Engineering Geology science area; task leader for the geomechanical rock testing component of a multi-disciplinary, multi-organisational (co-researchers include Imperial College, BRGM, BGR), co-funded EU research project into the development of “safety cases” for to enable the storage of carbon dioxide in old oil/gas reservoirs & lead investigator for the engineering geological mapping and modelling project of the Mersey Corridor, in NW England, & the mapping project of the Glossop landslides, in NW England.
Helen is the UK President of the International Association of Engineering Geology & the Environment; a Fellow of the Geological Society of London; a Member of The British Geotechnical Association (Associate Member Institution of Civil Engineers) and a Member of The Society of Professional Well Log Analysts.

Keynote Lecture
The challenges of an Engineering Geologists in the digital era of communication

How engineering geologists present data, information and expert knowledge, to an ever increasing variety of stakeholders, is a continual challenge. In the last twenty-five years, information technology and increased computing capacities have transformed the way in which engineering geologists and geoscientists work. In particular, the development and use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and modelling packages have meant that there is now a far greater opportunity to develop engineering geological products that show more effectively the third-dimension (3D) and now increasingly spatially monitor temporal data in four-dimensions (4D) . With the increasing speed of development of information technology and computing capacities for visualising ground investigation information and geological knowledge it is important for engineering geologists to keep knowledge and expertise up to date. Training and continual professional development is vital, as well as the development of standards and best practice to ensure consistency and interoperability of data.
These tools are for the first time enabling geologists and engineering geologists to create and communicate, interactively, 3D geological and engineering geological models that were previously developed as two-dimensional images (maps and cross-sections) by combining ground investigation information and geological knowledge. These tools have also opened up the question of how to deal with uncertainty and spatial variability. Various techniques are now being advanced looking at both deterministic and probabilistic approaches to answer these questions. This is now a key research challenge for engineering geology.


Prof. Kyoji Sassa

1963 - 1967 Kyoto University (Undergraduate in Forestry), Diploma
1967 - 1969 Kyoto University (Master Course in Forestry), Master Degree
1969 - 1973 Kyoto University (Doctor Course in Forestry), Doctor Degree
1975 - 1981 Research Associate, Kyoto University (Department of Forestry)
1977 - 1978 Visiting scholar in the Imperial College as an exchange scientist between the Royal Society of London and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.
1981 - 1993 Associate Professor, Kyoto University (Disaster Prevention Research
1993 - 2003 Professor, Kyoto University (Disaster Prevention Research Institute)
2003 - 2007 Director of the Research Centre on Landslides, Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University
2002 - 2008 Founding President of the International Consortium on Landslides
2003 - Present ICL Coordinator of the UNESCO-Kyoto University-ICL UNITWIN Cooperation Programme “Landslide and water-related disaster risk management for society and the environment”
2004 - Present Editor-in-Chief of “Landslides”: Journal of the International Consortium on Landslides, Springer
2009 - Present Executive Director of the International Consortium on Landslides

Keynote Lecture
Landslide Risk Assessment at Cultural Heritage Sites

Cultural heritages such as castles, palaces, monasteries, temples and other important human buildings have been constructed in chosen stable areas and those have survived for long years.
Some of cultural heritages are constructed on slopes, at the head of slopes or the flat ground near the slopes. Stable slopes are subjected to long-time rock weathering, river erosion, deformation by tectonic stress, and various types of human activities such as mining, ground water pumping, or irrigation. Those factors gradually undermine the stability of stable slopes. Those slopes have a risk to fail by triggering factors of earthquakes, or/and pore pressure rise during rains or snow melting or by the progress of creeping and its resulting strenth reduction in the potential shear zones.
The first case is the Lishan slope, Xian, China behind the resort palace of Tang Dynasty (A.D. 618-907). The Japan-China joint research on “Assessment of Landslide Hazards in Lishan (Yang-Qe-Fe Palace), Xian, China” (1991-1998) was implemented as one of the IDNDR (International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction) projects by the government of Japan. The Lishan Palace was constructed at the foot of the fault scar of a big fault. The base rock forming the fault scar was in Precambrian rock mass. The detailed monitoring and a ring shear testing presented the risk of large-scale landslide and its long run out motion. Based on this research, a large scale slope stabilization works were implemented to prevent the landslide forming process in this slope. The success of this project led to IGCP-425 project “Landslide hazard assessment and mitigation for cultural heritage sites and other locations of high societal value” (1998-2003).
The second case is the Inca’s World Heritage Machu Picchu citadel which was constructed at the top of granitic slope. The slope is divided in some blocks; an active landslide block No.1 where the Hiram Bingham Road was constructed on the slope and a precursor stage of landslide (block No.2) where a citadel was constructed. The flat ground of the current citadel site (block No.2) was estimated to be formed by the process that a steep mountain ridge had been removed by a large-scale landslide. Block No.2 is in a process from precursor stage of landslide to an active landslide block similar to Block No.1.
The third case is the 1972 Unzen Mayuyama landslide which destroyed the Shimabara town and killed 15,000 people directly by landslide and the resulting Tsunami wave. The International Consortium on Landslides developed a high stress undrained ring shear apparatus (3 MPa) for the risk assessment of large scale landslide in 2012. It was applied to this 400 m deep landslide and its rapid and long run-out motion. Risk assessment of precursor stage of large scale landslides needs detailed monitoring and geotechnical testing involved materials as well as geological and geomorphologic investigation. This is a frontier study of risk assessment of the precursor stage of large-scale landslides which may destroy important cultural heritages of humankind.


Dr. Alexander L. StromDr. Alexander L. Strom

In 1975 graduated from the Geological Department of Moscow State University and started working in the Hydroproject Institute. From 2003 till 2011 worked in the Institute of Geospheres' Dynamics of Russian Academy of Sciences. In 2011 returned to the Hydroproject (Geodynamics Research Center) where took the position of the head of seismic hazard assessment department. In 1999 got PhD degree in the Institute of Physics of the Earth of Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow).

Performed seismotectonic and paleoseismological investigations at numerous Hydraulic schemes in Central Asia, Caucasus, Southern Siberia, Trans Baikal region, Mongolia, Sudan, Himalayas, at oil and gas pipelenes in Sakhalin and Far East of Russia. Studied morphological and structural features typical of rock slides and rock avalanches. Since 2006 organize ICL Summer School on rockslides and related phenomena in Kokomeren River basin, in the Kyrgyz part of the Central Tien Shan. Translated into Russian and published 2nd edition of Paleoseismology. Was one of the Organizers of the of NATO Advanced Research Workshops "Massive Rock Slope Failure: New Models for Hazard Assessment" in Celano, Italy in 2002 and "Security of Natural and Artificial Rockslide Dams" in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan in 2004. Participated in several International Research Projects focused on natural hazard assessment in Central Asian region.

Keynote Lecture
Main causes of natural river damming - Climate change and seismicity: effect on landslide and seismic hazard assessment

Natural rivers damming belongs to the most dangerous natural phenomena in mountainous regions. Both long-living and ephemeral blockages produce devastating primary and secondary effects – submergence of valleys upstream and outburst floods downstream. However, causes and triggers of river's damming, though being studied for more than a century, are still not fully understood. Most often natural dams are associated with glaciation, which is a pure climate-driven process, and with large-scale bedrock landslides, which, in turn, could be triggered either by climatic phenomena such as abnormal precipitation, permafrost degradation, etc., or by endogenic processes, seismicity at the first place. The particular trigger is evident for the historical events, being proved by eyewitnesses and instrumental records. But when we deal with prehistoric features situation became much more complicated. Estimate of both general type of blockages (glacial vs. landslide) and of the latter's triggering factor (seismic vs. aseismic) could be quite controversial. The first controversy can be exemplified by reinterpretation of multiple past blockages in Karakorum mountain range drained by the Indus and its tributaries. Initially they were considered as effects of glaciation until Kenneth Hewitt proved Indus River basin to be a landslide fragmented system. Another, opposite example is the recent reassessment of numerous landslide dams in the adjacent Pamirs region by Nikolay Ischuk who considered them as end moraines (which is wrong from my point of view). Repeated reinterpretation was also made for the gigantic Komansu feature in the Alay Valley that was initially identified by K.V. Kurdiukov as rock avalanche, then reinterpreted by Andrey Nikonov and his coauthors as glacial deposits and reclassified recently by Natalia Resnichenko and Tim Davies back into rock avalanche (from my point of view this gigantic rock slope failure had to contain large proportion of ice). The most controversial and, at the same time critically important problem, is the revealing of real origin of landslide dams. Analysis of publications about origin of large-scale landslides in different mountainous regions show that while in the Alps most of large prehistoric rockslides have been related to the climate change – deglaciation, most of researchers consider very similar features in the Central Asia and Himalayan regions as indication of large prehistoric earthquakes. Prevailing role of the potential energy of rock mass in landslide mobility after slope failure makes any conclusions on their origin based on various geomorphic and depositional criteria quite uncertain. Nevertheless elaboration of reliable and well-grounded method(s) allowing to distinguish seismically triggered and aseismic past landslides is critically important. Understandings of their origin plays a critical role in the long-term assessment of both landslide and seismic hazards and of the effects of the long-term climate change as far as either depend on the processes that develop within the millennia-long time scale.


Dr. Faquan WuDr. Faquan Wu

BSc, MSc (China University of Geosciences), PhD (Chinese Academy of Sciences), Professor at Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.

Dr. Faquan Wu, professor of engineering geology at Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Secretary General and past vice president (2006-2010) of IAEG, Chairperson of IAEG China National Group, recipient of National Award of Science and Technology, Honored Scientist awarded by China State Council. Dr. Wu focus his research work at Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering Geology in the past 30 years. He proposed the theory of Statistical Rock Mechanics and solved key problems for a series of high slopes and underground space construction in his practice. He has been the chairperson of working group for slope protection in Three Gorges Reservoir region (2003-2009) and organized geological survey and engineering design for 2760 slopes in the area. He has conducted research work on controlling large deformation and stability of surrounding rock for Jinping I Hydro-power Station and Lan-Yu Railway tunnels.

Keynote Lecture
Large deformation of shist rock tunnel and its control

Large deformation of shist rock tunnel has been one of significant problems in the railway construction in Northwestern China. The main causes led to the problem are large depth with high crustal stresses, soft shist rock with strong anisotropy and quick excavation affecting.
The speech will include the following parts: phenomena of large deformation of the tunnel in Lan-Yu railway construction; the basic factors affecting the deformation of tunnel rock including geological stress, special properties of the rock and its soften mechanism caused by excavation, surrounding pressure and its strengthen effect; some lessons for geological investigation and design of tunnels.